Political Highlights

 Latest update: May 2022 

Japan is a constitutional democracy with a parliamentary government and a separation of the legislative, executive and judiciary powers. The Emperor does not have any political power and is chiefly the “symbol of the State and unity of the people”. The Japanese Parliament is called the Diet and is considered the “highest organ of State power”. It consists of the House of Representatives (465 seats as of 2022) and the House of Councillors (245 seats as of 2022). The Cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister, who appoints its members. These are usually members of the Diet, which in turn elect the Prime Minister. Elections for the House of Representatives are held every four years, and half of the House of Councillors is elected every three years. In addition to national elections, prefectural and municipal elections are also held.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan – Japan Fact Sheet, Government, Governmental Structure
House of Representatives, Japan – Strength of the In-House Groups in the House of Representatives
House of Councillors, The National Diet of Japan – Strength of the Political Groups in the House of Councillors
Japan Guide, Government


Table of Contents

  • Separation of Powers
  • Government
  • EU-Japan Summits
  • EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement
  • Other Agreements
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Organisations
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